The essay as a type of argumentative text




Structured introduction.

Formulates a thesis/antithesis.

Selects arguments/counterarguments to a thesis/antithesis.

Structures a concluding section.

Builds meaning and logical connections between the various structural and compositional elements of the essay.

Follows spelling, grammar, punctuation and vocabulary rules when producing a written text.


(Argumentative essay)

In the French system, there are several varieties of an essay (argumentative, descriptive, explanatory, etc.), but in education the genre is understood as a reflection on a particular topic that gives expression to the author’s opinion in a limited volume.

The argumentative essay aims to state an opinion on a topic without exhausting it, while at the same time the student analyses and illustrates it. It is possible use the logical construction – thesis/antithesis.

The introduction gives a brief definition of the topic. This could be done by commenting on the key words of the topic itself.

The first part states the author’s thesis, which is explained logically. A varying number of sub-theses are stated, each argued with facts from art, fiction, philosophy, science, social life (the argument is always subordinate to the topic). According to the essay length requirement (in this case we are talking about 250 – 300 words) 3 sub-theses are recommended or 3 examples if the thesis is only one.

The second part states the opposite thesis (antithesis) following the same pattern.

The third part summarizes both theses, giving weight to the one the author advocates and leading to a new topic derived from that of the essay.

Additional Requirements:

The thesis formulates a position adequate to the problem posed.

The thesis is formulated without citations.

The main sub-theses through which the argument will be built are present in the thesis.

The main thesis of the essay is the main points of the argument.

The classical essay uses a variety of sources of information that address the problem set. It is necessary to express a subjective opinion; the author must demonstrate persuasiveness in the argumentative part to be able to convince the reader as well.

Essay composition:

Introductory part (addressing the reader). The introductory section should “grab” the reader, but should always be directly subordinate to the topic. It is intended to spark the reader’s interest in reading the essay. It is necessary to sketch (outline) the problem. The main points should be covered, the text should be outlined but to summarize the conclusions at the end should not be suggested. The purpose of this section is to interest the reader and to make them want to learn more about this problem.

Paragraphs: Each paragraph is a set amount of words and is intended to lay out the author’s arguments and personal position on the given topic. The argumentation must be from reliable, verified sources. Emotional digressions are acceptable (except in an essay on a scientific problem), but should not be overdone.

Conclusion: In the last paragraph, the author is expected to summarize the idea that is phrased in such a way that the reader says to himself, “Yes, he’s really right.” The conclusion should refer to the future, expressing confidence or hopelessness that something will happen. It can end with the strongest argument that hasn’t been used before, an opinion, but also a question that refers to further thoughts.

Recommendation to essay writers:

Even when the topic seems mundane, banal, or common and you feel like there is nothing to write about, try to look at the problem/argument from different angles.