Arguments and argumentation

Types of arguments

Definitions and features


Building an argument: finding arguments and preparing an argument

Argument analysis – Argumentative analysis

The table presents some of the most commonly used arguments and techniques.

Brief definitions are given or features are highlighted.

Examples are provided to illustrate theoretical knowledge.


Definitions and Features


Argumentum ad rem

An argument for the matter

Facts, data, events from reliable sources are presented.

According to Eurostat … The results of the …

The data presented in the scientific paper by … published in the edition of the prestigious … in 2021.

Argument from Authority

Opinions, positions, conclusions of experts and specialists in a given field are quoted.

According to scientist Peter Smith …

Aristotle gives the following definition of rhetoric …

Argument against Authority

The credibility of the source and the argument, as well as the degree of expertise of the person quoted, are challenged.

The definition given by scholar X is true in principle for the late 20th century. However, it is not valid in the third decade of the 21st century.

Argument from personal experience or example

Present facts from personal experience or give examples of successes and failures, achievements, etc.

In my first year as a manager I worked under a lot of pressure, which led to burnout.

Argument from professional experience or example

An example from the professional field is briefly presented.

During the creation of my first company, I managed to organize the team. I learned to delegate rights and responsibilities regarding product marketing.

Argument from region, state, district – Local topic

An example is given from a specific country, region, company, department and it is reliable information.

The achievements in country X in terms of start-ups are as follows … Social entrepreneurship is accepted as good practice in country B.

Argumentum ad populum – Populist argument

The benefits to a group or an individual are presented, with the desirable described as possible and potentially realised, or as happening quickly.

If you prepare your documents well, you will be able to get a scholarship and so will have the opportunity to study without committing to extra work.

Argument finding and argument preparation tasks:

Find arguments, keeping sources and links if from online sources and resources.

Clarify the credibility of the sources.

Look for arguments from other authoritative sources.

Build the argument.

Prepare counter-arguments if you are going to engage in discussions, debates, dialogues to establish how the opponent would respond.

Tasks to establish the persuasive effect of using arguments and of argumentation.

Are the arguments credible? What source are they from?

What argument was used?

In what situation was it used and for what purpose?

How is the argument combined with other arguments?

How is the argument combined with the rhetorical figures?

What success is achieved when the argument is used?

Is argumentation effective?